The Origin and Development of Jaworzyna Slaska (Koenigszelt). A Contribution to the History of Modernisation in Silesia in 1848-1939
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Jaworzyna Slaska was founded in 1843 as a train station built in an open field along the line from Wroclaw to Swiebodzice. Once a connection from Jaworzyna Slaska to Swidnica was opened in 1844, it became the first railway junction in Silesia. In the course of several decades, a settlement with a population of up to twenty residents changed into a village with several thousand inhabitants. Up to the 1860s its origin and growth were determined exclusively by the railway and its requirements. From 1863 the village developed predominantly thanks to a local porcelain factory, which, together with a molasses distillery working since the 1870s, started to exert a prevailing impact on spatial development and the professional structure of the population. The establishment of industrial enterprises was, however, rendered possible only by convenient railway connections with the most important towns in Lower Silesia. During the first quarter of the 20th century the latter connection also encouraged the growth of sand mines and gravel pits. The early 20th century brought large-scale railway investments, which contributed to an essential change of the landscape, especially in the vicinity of the then expanded junction. New ventures included a shunting locomotive station, a rail yard, a water tower, a second train station, etc., and the electrification of the Wroclaw-Jaworzyna Slaska-Jelenia Góra line. The interwar crisis of the village ended in the 1930s thanks to an economic and construction revival. Up to the outbreak of the WWII the locality in question possessed the status of a village although its buildings, industry, and large railway junction granted it the features of a small town. At the time, Jaworzyna Slaska already had modern water supply and sewage systems, and was electrified.
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