WAYS OF APPEARING NEW BRANCHES IN MEDICINE IN THE YEARS 1800-1914. AN ATTEMPT AT FORMULATION OF AN ISSUE. (XIX-wieczne drogi powstawania specjalizacji w mwdycynie w latach 1800-1914 (Próba ujecia zagadnienia))
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A process of appearing medical branches lasted for many centuries. Its origins can be found already in long-ago civilizations. However, the comprehensive development of knowledge on the turn of the 18th century, its transmission by the press, professional contacts, including the foreign ones, brought about the consciousness of needs and activities in medical circles. A significant role in the process of appearing particular domains was played by technological progress. The inventions improved on cognitive processes within natural sciences and quickened exploring the new truths that were also employed in medical care. All these achievements of the 19th century, in authoress' opinion, resulted in the significant development of particular domains called branches that nowadays are commonly accepted. Among medical and important for the development of separate branches one often mentions the achievements of pathological anatomy, and even bacteriology, which influenced the beginnings of medical analytic and development of diagnostics. Moreover, the progress of therapy in the years 1840-1870 brought about modern methods of getting pharmaceutical remedies and ways of using medicaments. The knowledge together with experiences let prepare description of particular diseases. There was also created a scientific workshop and methodological tactic, which was distinct for separate cases of illnesses. A great role was played by statistics and different ways of registering particulars, also by means of photography. Bibliography and scientific literature were to transmit and compare the knowledge. All these circumstances show the intricacy of the discussed issue. Additionally, the described conditions reveal the importance of other reasons that played a significant role in setting up separate specialization - non-medical reasons of social, economic or political nature. The last ones have not been analyzed inherently by us. What interesting, in some countries and especially in Anglo-Saxon lands, the non-medical reasons have been a significant subject of historical interests and studies already since the half of the 1940s. Also the authoress' article is treating on them.
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