The relationship between the myth and the avant-garde (in European historical tradition) may appear as contradictory at the first sight, yet their coexistence and overlapping position are obvious. The function of myth was to help to resolve the contradictory concepts and ideas at the turn of the 20th century. The impact of its forms, its contradictory and syncretic nature can be detected in the avant-garde movements as well, although there were some transformations and shifts in emphasis in the second half of the 20th century. The myth is also a basic element of postmodern, anti-colonial, ecologic, spiritual alternative and other differentiating movements. The heritage of geographical discoveries and world exploration has also played an important part, especially its geographical and chronological aspects, as well as the acquired consciousness of the segmentation of time and space. In this sense, the paper offers several interpretations of French, Slovak and Rumanian works of literary fiction from the stream of literary realism, showing the construction of myths in these works in the light of modern literary techniques.