ANTONINA KRECHOWIECKA (1791-1831) - A FORGOTTEN LVOV WRITER IN GIRLS' EDUCATION FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE 19TH CENTURY (Antonina Krechowiecka (1791-1831) zapomniana lwowska publicystka poczatku XIX wieku o wychowaniu dziewczat)
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Antonina Krechowiecka (1791-1831) - a publicist, translator and writer is nowadays almost completely forgotten. She was connected with Lvov circles, and her literary ontput occurs in the years 1817-1827. Her reflective and philosophical articles, aphorisms, literary reviews, anecdotes and historical and moral novelettes were published in the columns of 'Pamietnik Lwowski' (Lvov Diary), 'Pszczola Polska' (Polish Bee) and 'Rozmaitosci' (Miscellany). She is also an author of the noveI entitled: 'Kazimierz i Jadwiga. Skutki dobrego wychowania', Lwów 1827 (Kazimierz and Jadwiga. Results of Good Education), and represents quite numerous circles of women that used to take up literary works in those days. She is a typical writer of the tuming-point of two literary epochs - classicism and romanticism, and two political periods - independent Poland and Poland under partitions. Krechowiecka began her literary career in the years 1817-1818 in the columns of 'Pamietnik Lwowski' (Lvov Diary) with a series of articles conceming widely understood education of girls of the Ianded gentry. Publishing her articles, she got ahead of other contemporary authors, who used to concentrate on the issue of girls' education as, for instance, Klementyna Hoffmanowa maiden name Tanska, or Anna Nakwaska. However, her impact on contemporary ideas - unlike Hoffmanowa - was insignificant, and her literary output was quickly forgotten. In ideas of Krechowiecka one can observe an inevitable incoherence: on the one hand, however, she is putting forward an idea of a very narrow and traditional programme of education and upbringing for girls, and on the other is talking openly about a necessity of establishing girls' schools and clamours against unjust moral standards that were different for women and men. It is probably the first so much significant moment, when a woman rose to speak about 'double morality' in the columns of Galician periodicals, and even Polish magazines. Undoubtedly, this protest together with promoting the idea that both women and men have right to supply their spiritual and intellectual needs for own satisfaction and upgrowth, and not only because of their practical use, distinguish Krechowiecka from other contemporary female publicists and speak for unconventional character and novelty of her literary output.
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