GARDEN BY THE HOUSE. MODEL SOLUTIONS AT SILESIAN EXHIBITIONS IN THE NINETEENTH AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (Ogród przy domu. Modelowe rozwiazania na wystawach slaskich w XIX w. i pierwszej polowie XX stulecia)
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The art of gardening became an exhibition theme very early, but it began to be treated as a subject only at specialised exhibitions; first such exhibition in Silesia was held in Wroclaw (Breslau) in 1845. The present article pays attention to the model garden or park around the house or residence. Initially, it was a scenic park that was promoted (Wroclaw exhibitions of 1869, 1872 and 1878). Soon the focus was on the reconstruction of its most representative, decorative and attractive parts: pleasure ground (flowerbeds, flower baskets, carpets and tubs, etc.), thematic gardens (exotic, mountain, one-species etc.), visible at the exhibitions in 1881, 1886 and 1892. Exotic compositions, originally in the form of winter gardens (the very first time in 1852), with the lapse of time were prepared in open space. The artistically richest and largest was a Japanese garden founded by Friedrich von Hochberg and laid out by Josef Anlauf in 1913. Previously, a similar exotic garden was made by F. Stämmler at Legnica (Liegnitz) in 1905. In consequence of historicism was an interest in old times gardens. Six gardens in a spirit of old ages, from the Middle Age to Empire were implemented by: Professor F. Rosen (whole plan, naturalist Th. Schube (historical plant cover), gardener F. Hanisch and architect Th. Effenberger. The project became a pretext for the discussion of the possibility to reconstruct a work of the old art of gardening. From 1904, the exhibitions became a place to look for a new type of a garden adjoining to the house that would replace a scenic park in its 'degenerate' form and fulfil the expectations of modern users. The search for alternative solutions was accompanied with an increasing influence of the British art of gardening (the Arts & Crafts movement) which led to a new attitude towards vegetable materials and to the creation of three new models of garden. The outstanding architect Hans Poelzig and gardener Paul Dannenberg proposed a country garden by a new type of a house (Landhaus). In 1913 gardens of Stanke and P. Hauber referred to the models of early modern gardens that balanced in their compositions usable and decorative parts. Towards architectonic gardens were inclined Peuckert, Reifegerster and Seidel - the authors of layouts in garden-towns Karlowice (Karlowitz) and Brochów (Brockau). A. Menzel was the only one who drew from the modern American art. These two latter tendencies dominated at interwar exhibitions (the GuGALi at Liegnitz in 1927 iand WuWa in Breslau in 1929) in the form of ascetic modernistic gardens designed by E. Vergin, P. Hatt, K. Schutze, J. Schutze and F. Hanisch. With time, there is a change to be seen in the organisation of exhibitions that began to be treated as the area of commercial, propaganda and political activities aimed at a mass consumer audience rather than a narrow social elite. Such was the purpose of the GuGALi organisers and its main designer G. Allinger.
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