CURRENCY OPTIONS CONTRACTS - DRAFT OF CRIMINAL APPRAISAL ANALYSIS (Umowy z instrumentem opcji walutowych- zarys analizy prawnokarnej)
Languages of publication
The issue of contracts between entrepreneurs and banks, that subject are currency options as well as derivatives, may be in some particular situations given under penal appraisal. In case of willing mislead of a second part regard to essential elements and legal consequences of the contract normative definition of fraud, art. 286 § 1 of Penal Code may be applied. Similar situation takes place in case of usage of contractor's lack of knowledge. Essential condition is however, that concluded contract should lead to damage i.e. in entrepreneur's bank account. On occasion normative definition of breach of trust (art. 296 of Penal Code) or extraordinary usury (art. 304 of Penal Code) may be considered. In case of fraud or breach of trust not only members of the managing bodies but also bank as an institution (legal entity) may be responsible under criminal law on a legal basis of The Act of the Liability of Collective Entities for Prohibited Acts of 28.10.2002. It should be taken for granted that due to some similarities of conditions both crimes and civil law claims, which can found a legal base for entrepreneurs' suits willing to invalidate of a contract or to avoid its legal effects, penal proceedings will be applied before civil law proceedings or both proceedings will be open simultaneously. Pursuant to the Polish legal system can be noticed that both civil law and penal proceedings may in this particular situation have complement character. Penal law procedure focuses on imputation of responsibility for committed crime may be also suitable to satisfy civil law claims.
Publication order reference
CEJSH db identifier