Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is, without a doubt, a very important factor (component) of economic development, especially in developing countries such as Poland. The problem discussed in this article is the unfavorable structure of FDI in Poland. That is why the author focuses on new, institutional determinants of FDI inflow. The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyse the institutional determinants of FDI in Poland. Taking this into consideration, the author considers formal institutional factors (e.g. international agreements, legal consideration, administrative procedures and state policies) and informal institutional factors (e.g. culture, tradition, corruption or business methods) which influence FDI inflow. The theoretical and empirical analysis was based on domestic and foreign literature and statistics.