LVOV'S ARTISTIC MILIEU (1730-1780) TOWARDS THE IDEA OF SYMBIOSIS OF ARTS IN DECORATING AND FURNISHING OF SACRAL INTERIORS
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The idea of homogeneous decoration of sacral interiors, postulated at the turn of the 16th century in the texts of Counter-Reformation writers (Charles Borromeo, Robert Bellarmin, Cardinal Federico Borromeo) derived from the works of Gianlorenzo Bernini, who managed to couple the means of expression of architecture, sculpture and painting 'in tal modo, che di tutte si faccese un bel composto'. Bernini's ideas were developed and spread by Andrea Pozzo in his designs of church decorations and in a comprehensive treatise entitled 'Propectiva pictorum et architectorum' (1693, 1700), read, translated and used as a model throughout whole Europe. Those Italian models were eagerly emulated in the countries of the German Reich (although their structural compactness was replaced by the purely decorative effects), and at the same time were adapted to the Baroquisation of the interiors of Gothic churches.Such a free adaptation of the idea of 'bel composto' was transferred to the art of Lvov's milieu in the 18th century, mainly by the artist coming from the German Reich. After 1730 it was willingly imitated in Bernardine Franciscans and Jesuit churches in Crown Ruthenia, creating illusionistic paintings and filling their interiors with altars characterised by expressive sculpture decoration (Lvov, from 1736; Lezajsk, after 1740; Rzeszów, ca. 1769). Exceptionally high level of homogenous interior design presented mature works of architect Bernard Meretyn, who ca. 1750 established a great building firm in which he employed outstanding sculptor Jan Jerzy Pinsel. The both artists organised in a very effective way interiors of the churches at Horodenka (from 1743) and Hodowica (1751-1758), harmoniously uniting exquisite Baroque architecture with the figures of extremely dynamic and expressive forms. The most outstanding students of Meretyn and Pinsel were the brothers Piotr and Maciej Polejowskis. The first organised anew the presbytery of a church at Podkamien (from 1764) and made a thorough Baroquisation of a Gothic Latin cathedral in Lvov (1765-1776), the latter designed a uniform interior decoration of a collegiate church at Sandomierz (1770-1773). The idea of homogenous interior design of Roman Catholic churches influenced also the internal décor of Uniate churches (among others Poczajów, Buczacz). In the 18th century such designs were introduces into over hundred of churches in Crown Ruthenia, among them even wooden churches as well (Radenice, 1754).
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