EXISTENCE AND NON-EXISTENCE. ONTOLOGICAL CONTEMPLATIONS ON PARMENIDES (Byt i niebyt. Wokólparmenidesowe rozmyslania ontologiczne)
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Starting from the judgement of Parmenides that there is existence but non-existence is not, the author discusses the issues of existence in Parmenides. This subject is examined not only as an ontological problem (what is existence per se), but also as an epistemological problem. Using Parmenides' thesis of the cognisability of 'non-existence', the author considers the problem of the legitimacy of the concept of 'non-existence' (how is it possible to perceive something which is not there), making use of the conception of modi existentiae (real existence, intentional existence). The problem of the complexity and simplicity of existence is also considered. Alongside the perception of existence as that which is absolutely simple, he also considers as possible the equally gentle, emergent and organicistic interpretation of the conception of existence according to Parmenides. At the same time, the contemplations in the article aim to show in what way the problem of existence as formulated by Parmenides has for centuries inspired philosophy and continues to do so.
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