The arguments concerning modernity of the Slovak thinking manifested themselves in the course of the 20th century in the confrontations of two streams: the traditionalistic and modernistic ones. The Hegelianism as the intellectual source of the national philosophy was rejected, while the conservatives criticized severly modern philosophy for its secularization tendencies. Against Kant Thomas Aquinas and the neothomism were picked up; the philosophical synthesis should have been grounded in the metaphysical principles. The divergence of incommensurable positions of transcendence and immanence manifested itself in full size in the conflicts between the representatives of the Catholic modernity and the avant-garde theoreticians and the surrealist poets. The same applies to the philosophical disagreements concerning the nature of knowledge between the adherents of the intuitive realism on one side and the critical realism on the other side. In the Slovak milieu the enforcing of modernity always had to face the opposition or even an open negation of the modernism.