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2005 | 29 | 147-158

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Different names of frost and ice-covered surfaces in Belorussian dialects of the areas around Grodno


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This publication finishes the series of articles on meteorological terminology in Belorussian dialects around Grodno. The application of a comparative method, taking into consideration both structural and semantic aspects, allowed the author to systematize and, in some cases, compare terms of wide comprehension, the extent of lexemes, and also, ascertain their origin provenience which led to recognizing and merging them into a certain chronological part of vocabulary. Thinking about the oldest one, it is possible to relate the words that have a wide, all - Slav extent of using. They are believed to create the common heritage of proto-Slavonic (or even proto-Indo-European) epoch thanks to the words such as: 'maroz' (frost), 'led, galaled' , galaledzitsa' (glaze) and 'gruda' (frozen ground) and probably 'sharesh' (glazed frost). It is important to say that these words describe the most elementary ideas and notions. In this group of words there is one specific example with East-Slavonic extent while its Belorussian continuant (feminine 'galashchaka: galashchoka' is just used in the area of Grodno. The other group is created by the words with the proto-Slavonic origin of stem, however, they came into being after the collapse of language community based on the characteristic word - formation in the certain language area. They could also appear owing to some appropriate specific phonetic transformations. In this group there can be put some local derivates such as: 'marazitsko, marazyanka' (in relation to commonly used 'maroz'), 'zimnik, padzimak, prizimak' (frost) - based on proto-Slavonic stem *zim-, 'galyaledzikha' (glaze) - with suf. '-ikha' contrary to 'galaled, galaledzitsa' in literary style - 'ablivaka' (glaze), and probaly 'rapa' ,'<*khrapa' (frozen ground). Additionally, to this group belong the words which admittedly have the same structural synonyms in cognate Slavonic languages or their dialects, but with the new semasiology. The clear example of this fact is the word 'shroni' originated from Grodno with the meaning: 'the pieces of ice'. It illustrates the opposition to the former proto-Slavonic meaning 'hoar - frost'. Another example is 'pradushina' (ice - hole). The other substantial example is 'dzirny' (frozen mud). The third and the least numerous group consists of the words adopted from Polish language or changed by the influence of Polish phonetic system, eg.: 'shroni, slizgota, slizgavitsa' (glaze), 'sopli' (icicles)', 'zembits' (frozen) and also possibly 'tryskuts' (frost) and 'sharesh' (glazed frost).






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  • B. Ostrowski, Instytut Slawistyki PAN, al. Mickiewicza 31, 31-120 Krak√≥w, Poland


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