SYSTEMATIZATION OF MORPHEMES IN HUNGARIAN
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Morphemics is a branch of morphology dealing with the morphemic analysis of words (root. A .affixes), with form-building (stem. A .inflectional affixes), with word-building (base form. A .formants) and with composition (two or more words. A .compound word), where A stands for 'arrow'.. The root of a word is the smallest shared morpheme within a family of words which carries the main lexical meaning of related words: asztal - asztal- i, asztal- os. According to their use, roots are usually free morphemes (can stand alone as complete words). Bound roots can never stand alone to make a word: hent-es, fesz-ül, patt-an, gyógy-ít. In some compound words two roots can be used as transfixes (usually in different meanings): vagyonrész - részvagyon, munkabér - bérmunka. The roots of old compound verbs are used in Hungarian as ambifixes: Létrehozták a megállapodást. - Nem hozták létre a megállapodást. Affixes are morphemes that can be added to a root. They are generally classified into various types, depending on their (1) position with respect to the root, (2) use, (3) function, (4) meaning, (5) frequency, (6) productivity and (7) origin. - According to their position with respect to the root, affixes fall into classes as follows: an affix added before the root of a word is a prefix: a-morális, ki-járat; affixes after the root are postfixes: ki-jár-at-i. An affix between two roots is an interfix: bar-o-gráf, ocean-o-gráfia. A unifix is an affix between a root (or stem) and a postfix: ad-o-tt. A superfix (also called suprafix) is a suprasegmental (stress or tone) distinction: dél felé mentünk - délfelé ebédelünk. There is no infix and no internal flexion in Hungarian. According to their use, affixes are almost always bound morphemes. The Hungarian verbal prefixes are used as ambifixes. The confix (also called circumfix) is an affix that is realised as a combination of a prefix and a suffix, such as be-dutyi-z. According to their function, affixes may be derivational, inflectional, or syncretic. The Hungarian postfixes are divided into derivational suffixes, inflectional suffixes (called jel in Hungarian, like past-tense -t in írt) and flexional endings of cases, persons or possessive endings.
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