Dějiny, současnost a perspektivy rekonstrukčních map
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HISTORY, PRESENCE AND PROSPECTS OF RECONSTRUCTION MAPS
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Reconstruction maps and cartographic models are commonly used as methods and resources of scientific research (historical, geographical, archaeological, urban etc.) and tools used for processing results of scientific work. The term 'reconstruction maps' started to be used for topic-based maps including historical ones and is commonly used in the professional 'non-cartographic' community. Reconstruction maps have their own genesis and history. We can find maps of this type in historical atlases from the 18th century. At present there is an immense number of reconstruction maps published independently, in atlases or as parts of scientific studies and publications; at the same time, new maps are being created. There is no or completely insufficient registration system of these works. A reconstruction map shows results of research by means of modern methods based on another general geographic and cartographic work, mostly a modern one, but possibly an old one too. Simply said, the term 'reconstruction map' covers in various types of topic-based maps focused on historical matters (archaeological, historical, historical-geographical etc. maps). A reconstruction map is not a cartographic 'terminus technicus', cartographic terminological dictionaries do not know this term and so they do not list it. The thing is that the map reconstructs processes or phenomena which occurred in the past and for the reconstruction modern cartographic tools are used. Archaeologists, historians, historical geographers, ethnologists, people responsible for the preservation of cultural heritage and other specialists use the term 'reconstruction map'. This term is known by specialists in many other disciplines, such as geography, historical geography, geoinformatics, architecture, urbanism, landscape ecology and others. A 'reconstruction map' is, unlike a historical map, a broader term. A 'historical map' is a cartographic 'terminus technicus'. It ranks among topic-based maps, and this could include maps of various social phenomena provided we sort maps according to their contents. The term historical map is also used in connection with historical atlases for schools and the public, and in connection with the popularisation of history. It has its own history reaching back to the 18th century when the first historical atlases were created. Reconstruction maps became an integral part of historical work and research in other related disciplines. What are their prospects? We can expect that in the process of creating reconstruction map, more and more scientific methods will be used. Besides, philosophical aspects of the relationship between people and landscape will be emphasized and we can expect ecological approach to be employed when dealing with issues from the late 20th century. It is beyond doubt that computer simulation and interactive, dynamic electronic maps will be increasingly used in the process of creating reconstruction maps. National as well as professional literature and cooperation with other fields of science provide inspiration for work with reconstruction maps.
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