COMPARATIVE RESEARCHING CULTURES THROUGH A COMMUNICATIVE IDEAL
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The article is devoted to researching cultures through a communicative ideal or absolute communicative value that covers the culture's basic communication rules shared by all speakers. This absolute ideal determines the concept of 'good' and 'bad' speech and is invariably considered when any language or speech unit is used. The intentional structure, themes and style of the communicative ideal cover all types, forms and genres of phatic and non-phatic communication. Communicative ideal also determines the poetics of human communication within this culture. It's possible to discover a communicative ideal through the language idioms which are formed by lexical units of the language naming the key value concepts of this culture. Good material can also be gained from various reflexives or metalanguage comments, phrases about the language and speech which belong to various spheres and types of communication. It may also be valuable to study the characters of national (Russian, English, Polish) literature who may be viewed as the models of the ideal communicative partners within these cultures. The article discusses the probability of experimental study of a communicative ideal. It is also important that a communicative ideal occupies a significant place in the system of statements about the types of the national cultures which are formulated in a semantic primitive language. Thus, communicative ideal is formed by values described in a semantic primitive language through simple affirmative formulas: 'It's good if...'. Communicative ideal as a rule is rather simple and clear for every speaker and is usually not an object of description and discussion. This mainly differentiates the communicative ideal from various communicative scenarios. However, a communicative ideal can also vary, at least, in some cultures. The typology of communicative concepts and values based on the field model where the centre corresponds with the communicative ideal and the periphery - particular communicative scenarios, enables to learn different types of communicative concepts variation for the centre and periphery.
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