This text is a kind of re-reading of a collection of the studies published in 1966 within the Litteraria edition as its 9th volume under the title 'Literary Avant-gardes'. From the general point of view it is an important change in reception of this period in the history of literature, since the 1950s in the Czechoslovak literary study were ill-omened with indifference and refusal of the avant-garde. The authors of these papers chose the structural approach as an opposite to the critique of the ideas, which dominated in the contemporary literary studies. From the particular point of view it is an anachronism, because these literary scholars developed the principles of structural analysis, based by Jan Mukarovský in the 1930s and 1940s, to whom this book is inscribed. It is not necessary to mark that this anachronism was caused by the political and social situation in Czechoslovakia. The book is a precious asset to the Czech and Slovak literary studies.