THE PROBLEM OF MEANING AND ITS MAIN TRANSFORMATIONS IN FRENCH PHILOSOPHY OF THE SECOND HALF OF 20TH CENTURY (Problema sensu ta yii holovni transformatsii u frantsuz'kii filosofii druhoi polovyny XX stolittia)
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The author investigates the main stages in the development of the concept of Meaning in French philosophy of the second half of 20th century. The first stage is identification of the problem of Meaning in the phenomenology of . Merleau-Ponty, who connected this problem with his task to develop the concept of 'extended, cultural-historical mind'. The second - structuralism - stage connects Mind with the concept of social mind, shifting its investigation from the sensual domain into the domain of logic of social connections. The third stage consists in criticism of the structuralism's philosophical program. Structuralism's concepts of Meaning and Mind are criticized for their formalism and causality. Meanwhile, the development of analytical philosophy of language and philosophy of mind has transferred these concepts into the domain of the rule of later L. Wittgenstein: Meaning has possessed a status of a 'regulative principle' of social life, which represents a normative system, or in the terms of V. Descombes, a social institution. The authoress demonstrates various ways of exploring the concepts of Meaning and Mind, and proves that, by ignoring an opportunity of methodological reflection upon these concepts, any humanitarian or philosophical investigation will easily shift into determinism, individualism, or subjectivism.
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