The present paper was divided into two parts. In the first part were discussed the achievements of Polish chemists, who worked out grounds for the development of analytical chemistry that began with winning back the independence in 1918. In the second part were presented the results of searches that were taken up in Poland in the interwar period. The activity in this time recurrently turned out to be a reason for its reactivating after 1945. The most significant achievements were confirmed by representative references to publications.