'PEOPLES IN EXILE'. THE ROLE OF REFUGEE CAMPS IN THE CREATION OF A NEW IDENTITY OF THEIR INHABITANTS ('Narody na wygnaniu'. Rola obozów dla uchodzców w ksztaltowaniu sie nowej tozsamosci ich mieszkanców)
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The article shows the role that so-called refugee camps or refugee centres play in the development of the identity and culture of refugee groups. In organized refugee camps their inhabitants can be controlled, distribution of aid is facilitated and repatriation programme is easier to carry out. Therefore refugee camps are considered, both by the authorities of refugee receiving countries and UNHCR and humanitarian organisations, as the most effective and cheapest form of their protection. However, such camps are not conducive to the integration of the refugees with the host society, which would be desired in a situation when a quick return to their home country is not possible. A long stay in camps and manifestation of power over refugees by camp staff create grounds for the development of a new identity of refugees. This identity is associated with the specific moral attitude and behaviour code, which is manifested as the 'culture of resistance'. What binds such groups of refugees is the political community of identity and interests and a feeling of enslavement of the 'people in exile', which differentiates refugees from people living outside the camp. The author emphasizes that nation-forming processes can take place without the involvement of the state apparatus and territory. Keeping refugees in camps for a long time can have serious consequences. In conclusion the author describes the reasons for this state of affairs - on the one hand it is the national character of modern states, which defend themselves against the inflow of immigrants, and, on the other - the international system of their protection, which maintains a large number of unemployed refugees in emigration for many years. This system paradoxically strengthens the problem of refugees and creates new difficulties.
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