REPRESENTATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERDEPENDENCE IN MALES' AND FEMALES' EXPECTATIONS OF HIERARCHY AND COMPETITION
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The study is focused on cognitive representations of a hierarchical and competitive world in male and female expectations. Framed by social cognitive views of psychological interdependence (Deutsch, 1985), four measures served to assess representations of the social world: hierarchy, competition, trust in others and positive reciprocity. Target phenomena were investigated by comparisons of gender groups and in relation to gender self-concept. An analysis showed a) balanced rather than polarized expectations across all four measures of social world in both males and females; b) highly significant gender differences in the expectations of competition and positive reciprocity; c) females' expectations to be more differentiated than males' expectations; d) gender self-concept to be of marginal influence upon male and female interpersonal expectations. The findings are discussed in the context of experimental studies and non-schematic views of hierarchy and competition.
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