CONTEMPORARY JOURNALIST INTERVIEW IN PRINT: TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING, EDITING AND PUBLISHING (Wspolczesny prasowy wywiad dziennikarski: techniki prowadzenia, opracowanie, publikacja)
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A journalist interview is a well established and described genre. In many journalism textbooks it is recognized as highly important, as interview technique is both the key to acquiring information by a journalist (from people), and a way of conducting and analysing a longer literary text in a form of a dialogue between a journalist and interviewed person. The presented text discusses interview techniques, leading to creating an extensive text that would cover many topics. Such an interview, intended for publication, takes a shape of a live question-answer conversation between a journalist and his or her interlocutor. Attention is drawn to the most important steps of interview preparation: choosing the subject and the interlocutor, arranging scenery of the meeting, conducting and recording the interview, editing and preparing the text for publishing (in the light of Polish law all this has to additionally be hedged around with the right of the interviewed person to authorise the interview). The article presents the most basic typology of interviews: for a person (when the conversation focuses on the speaking person) and for a cause (when the subject matter of the talk is a field in which the interviewed person is a specialist). The author underlines an effort that has to be made by the journalist in order to prepare for an interview - there is the necessity for detailed research, acquainting oneself with the topic to be discussed, very good knowledge of the subject close to the interviewed person's heart. He emphasizes also an important and widely discussed issue of the journalist's responsibility for the person with whom he or she talks, as well as requirements regarding a successful interview: respect, interest taken in the interlocutor, keeping certain distance and also - fundamental for this profession - the problem of working under pressure of time and some brevity and the need to apply schematic attitude and simplify the journalistic narrative. The whole text is illustrated with numerous quotations taken from professional press and workshop materials in which famous and renowned masters of the press interview talk about their professional experience. In this text there are also remarks on the way a journalist works on the material he or she has collected and acceptable interferences in somebody's statement. Also, the author mentions the issue of authorisation, which is an infamous remnant of the censorship which constituted a part of press law made in 1984 and - in its principles - valid till this day.
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