The gender division of people into ‘men’ and ‘women’ is valid in all, even the smallest, human groups Identification of woman or man stems from the basic relation nature v. culture. Every human society is built on this ground. The goal of this essay is to analyse in which way the childbirth determinates woman’s status in society. In case of cultural interpretation of childbearing, distinct identification of man and woman is made. The status of woman in society is derived from the main difference between men and women - the ability to give birth to progeny. Social structure which differentiates humankind from its animal progenitors is among others marked by every individual’s knowledge of his or her mother as well as father, who is perceived as ‘pater’ not as ‘genitor’. For a woman, delivery means a break point accompanied by a rite of passage. Delivery can cause a change of woman’s status. The study focuses on these questions: what is the significance of childbirth for woman and her society? What kinds of socially accepted values can influence social status of woman? How is the dichotomy mother-father created? Does the traditional social role of woman still exist in modern society?