RECEPTION OF CHARLES DARWIN'S WORKS IN POLAND IN THE 19TH CENTURY (Recepcja wydawnicza dziel Karola Darwina w Polsce w XIX wieku)
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Charles Darwin (1809-1882) published 16 academic works, the most important of which was 'On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection' (London 1859). This work completely changed the perception of nature and laid the foundations for modern biological sciences. By the end of the 19th century all of Darwin's works from the so-called evolutionist cycle were published in Poland; the publications included 6 works in 13 editions and variants. Darwin's writings were brought to the attention of Polish readers mainly through publications associated with sociocultural periodicals ('Niwa', 'Kraj', 'Przeglad Tygodniowy'). For their editors Darwinism was an important concept that created the framework for a progressive ideological programme. The publishers of 'Niwa' biweekly began to publish Darwin's works in Poland during a dispute over Darwinism (1872-1876), publishing 'The Expression of the Emotions' (Warszawa 1872) and an unfinished 'On the Origin of Species' (Warszawa 1873). The second attempt to publish the works by the British naturalist was made in the mid 1880s by the publishers of 'Przeglad Tygodniowy' in collaboration with the young naturalists-translators, Jozef Nusbaum (1859-1933) and Szymon Dickstein (1858-1884). It came at a time of intensified discussion about the merits of Darwin's theory (1882-1891) and covered four of his works, including the first complete Polish edition of 'On the Origin of Species' (Warszawa 1884). The full biography of Darwin works published in the form of books in Poland by the end of the 19th century, included in the article, takes into account for the first time all known publishers' and printers' variants, and identifies original editions that were the basis of Polish translations.
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