In the author's view, at the outset of the 21st century Poland's agriculture is facing a triple dilemma and the manner of resolving it will determine the agriculture's future and, consequently, the country's economy as a whole. What has occurred is a blockade of internal factors of the development of agriculture, i.e.those inherent in the systemic transformation policies. Development priorities are being re-arranged in view of the expected accession of Poland to the European Union. Similar to other countries, Poland is facing globalization problems. Against such background the author analyzes the new situation of agriculture in the context of national economy paying special attention to structural unemployment in agriculture, the aggravation of income disparities, blockades of investment processes and the reduced use of resources (land and labour). The author states that the principal cause of the mounting crisis in agriculture is its faulty positioning of the sector in the entire economy. He favours an active pro-income policy in agriculture enabling the farmer to take on a larger share of self-financing for development.