LINGUISTIC DEVICES OF MANIPULATION IN WRITTEN ADVERTISEMENTS
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The purpose of this study is to define manipulation and separate it theoretically from persuasion as much as possible, as well as to present linguistic realizations of manipulative psychological strategies applied in written advertisements. The corpus consists of half and one page size written advertisements collected from various magazines. To define and separate manipulation vs. persuasion the authoress applies the Gricean cooperative model (GRICE 1997), the face-work model elaborated by GOFFMAN (1995), and SPERBER & WILSON's (1986) ostensive-inferential communication model. The Gricean model reveals that, while persuasion is a kind of cooperative linguistic behaviour, manipulation involves violation of the cooperative principle. In the face-work model persuasion can be classified as a facethreatening act, and although manipulation seems at first sight to be face-protecting, in fact it is facethreatening as well. Persuasion and manipulation can be best separated with the help of the ostensiveinferential communication model. This model claims that while persuasion is communication, manipulation is not communication. She analyses the linguistic realizations of four different ps ychologicalstrategies: the minimum-group paradigm, threatening, personal experience and uniqueness. With the help of the analysis she presents the linguistic devices that can make those psychological strategies work.
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