The contribution deals with women's criminality in Slovak Republic as developed during the last decades. In the first part it surveys the criminological interpretations and theories explaining female criminality. In the second part the trends of female criminality (changes in measures and structure of female criminality and crime rates) are analysed. Authors utilise official crime statistics of the Police Corps of Slovak Republic and discuss their limits. The third part is dedicated to the analysis of the statistics of prosecuted offenders. The attention is paid to differences of court's sanctions between male and female offenders. Authors discuss criminological feminist thesis about bigger indulgence to female offences (the probation is more frequently delivered to female offences and male offences are more frequently punished by prison punishment) and argue that such situation is connected with specificity of female criminality (it is less serious than male criminality) and with specificity of criminal justice process (individual evaluation of offence and personal circumstances of its committing). In the fourth part authors analyse the female prison population in the Slovak Republic (socio-demographic, familiar, criminological characteristics) and compare their findings with similar studies about the female prison population in the Czech Republic. Although many characteristics between these female prison populations bear many common resemblances, Slovak female prison population is less educated, less qualified and less employed. These differences are related to wider social situations in both countries.