The aim of our study is to review the meaning of the term “poeticism” and consider its vitality within contemporary poetry. It identifies specific features of contemporary Czech poetic language that distinguish it from the commonly spoken and written language. For this purpose, we utilise data collected in the Corpus of Contemporary Czech Poetry, using a keyword-extraction tool. We argue that poeticisms in contemporary poetry can be identified based on their frequency as keywords which significantly exceeds the frequency of the same words in common language. Our study concludes by drawing a distinction between two types of poeticisms: functional ones are defined by their frequency, while essential ones are used exclusively in poetic language.