Second-order free-riding problem and its solutions
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For the past twenty years numerous various attempts have been developed to explain the co-operation problems on the area of social sciences based on the discipline of rational decision theory and similar intentions of evolutionary biology have joined these initiatives. Despite the outstandingly rich literature on suggested solutions, the problem has not been answered yet. A number of attempts at solving the Second-order Free-riding Problem suggest to involve an extemal factor in order to explain the co-operative behaviour (e.g. altruistic punishment), others attempt to modify the original problem, inserting rigorous assumptions (evolutionary explanations). It seems that the altruistic punishment and the strong reciprocity will get outstanding roles in explaining the emerging and sustaining of norms. On the other hend this should not mean that the rational calculation approach would not play any role in the future, as the various social control mechanisms expressed by the social networks can represent such cost reduction factors which can strengthen the motives based un fairness.
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