AXIOLOGICAL VALUE OF METAPHOR
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Metaphor is dealt with from the position of cognitive linguistics. Key differences between the new and the traditional approach towards metaphor fall under three oppositions: predication versus nomination, conventionality versus individuality, thinking strategy versus comparison. Evaluation in metaphor is not the 'conditio sine qua non' but is nevertheless very frequent and closely related to the expressive function of the speech act. The appearance of evaluation in metaphor is being determined by two factors: the direction of metaphor and the cultural tradition. The direction of metaphor is defined by the relation between the source domain and the target domain. In most cases takes the evaluation takes the anthropocentric direction, i.e. metaphor directed towards a person (man) contains negative evaluation whilst the reverse direction (person as the source domain) - positive evaluation. By its nature metaphor has a universal character; in different languages the types of metaphors coincide, however, and their concrete realization often depends on culture. Thus, the evaluation of many metaphorical expressions can be difficult to explain by the actual value of these objects, which constitute the source domain of metaphor.
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