(Polish title: (Antropologia kulturowa/etnologia wobec dwoistosci globalizacji. Globalizacja jako element swiata zobiektywizowanego i globalizm jako ideologia). On the one hand globalisation and its consequences create an objective reality and on the other - a subjective reality, which transforms into ideology, i.e. globalism. The author notices both the separateness and autonomy of globalisation as a process and socio-economic state and globalism as ideology and the relations between them. He poses a question about the chronology of the globalisation process, also as regards the evolution of global science, including global cultural anthropology. He is aware of the delays in modern anthropological research on globalisation, but he tries to discover their provenance in earlier studies. In his opinion the involvement of anthropologists in studies on globalisation and development of a programme of such studies not only creates an opportunity for better understanding of the phenomenon but also for further development of anthropology.