HUMANITARIAN COMPONENT OF CONFLICTS AS THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THE HUMANITARIAN EXPERTISE (Humanitarnyi komponent konfliktiv yak predmet humanitarnoi ekspertyzy)
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An integral approach towards an investigation of 'humanitarian composite' of conflicts, which is not reduced to sociological, psychological, legal, moral and other dimensions, is suggested in the article. To prove it, the author applies to the habitus theory of P. Bourdieu and to the instruments of phenomenological sociology, represented, first of all, by A. Schutz and T. Luckman, as well as to the moral conception of Ch. Taylor, in which human identity is regarded from the standpoint of moral orientation in social space. A thought, that an identity is created by means of liabilities and identifications, that constitute the framework for the space where the identities define their positions, is maintained. So, the issue of moral orientation cannot be solved by means of general terms. The thing we call the 'identity crisis' is an acute form of disorientation, and people often express within the terms of not-knowing who they are. From this standpoint, the definitions of 'humanitarian crisis', 'humanitarian catastrophe', 'humanitarian values', 'humanitarian assistance', 'humanitarian expertise', traditional for humanitarian analytics, are read in a new way. The latter should not be regarded as that, aimed to solve problems instead of a human, but as that, aimed to make a human to take a decision concerning his/her life independently and knowingly. Thus, the emphasis is transferred from an avoidable evaluation of possible risks and dangers to the human's possibility of independent partaking in the treatment of his/her 'disease' (liquidation of the mentioned risks and dangers) and 'good-bad' definition for his/her life, i.e. to achieve the condition, having a sense of a certain therapeutic effect.
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