The study presents a look at one of the most common crimes of the past - infanticide. It was conducted using materials stored in the State Regional Archives, from files in the Women's Prison in Repy, the most important of which are archive materials (books and bundles) from 1864-1948; prison in Repy was intended for convicts from Czech Lands and after 1918 from whole Czechoslovakia; during these 84 years 946 women were captive in prison because of infanticide. The study focuses on information about the number of women convicted for the crime of infanticide, their lives (age, social and family background, marital status, education level, ethnic structure and occupation), location where the crime was commited, method and reasons that led women to commit infanticide. Also presented are the length of the sentences, the potential aggravation of the sentence, and the situation surrounding the release of the individual. All this information is supplemented with samples of papers that have survived. The study also includes an excursion into life in a prison.