Rod a rasa: ‚Ženská otázka‘ v Tretej ríši
GENDER AND RACE: 'WOMEN'S QUESTION' IN THE THIRD REICH
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This article seeks to analyze gender perspective in scholarly studies dealing with the Holocaust and the national-socialist Germany. The first books discussing women and the Holocaust are concerned with two issues - first, whether these women were discriminated not only as non-Aryans but also as women and second, how did women's experience in the Holocaust differ from the men's. More recent studies bring to attention pre-war socialization and the trio race-class-gender constellation for the understanding of Holocaust testimonies. Scholarly works studying the role of healthy Aryan women in this period are mostly concerned with the question of guilt. While the predominating opinion was equating women with victims of the Nazi politics, in the middle of 1980s a new attitude was taken, seeing healthy Aryan women as bystanders and perpetrators of the ruling regime. Moreover, the article examines above-mentioned scholarly propositions from the historical perspective. Nazi politics towards marriage, pregnancy, and children, together with the role of the largest women's Nazi organization NS-Womanhood, are among the most discussed issues.
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