SYSTEM OF ELECTIONS TO THE SEJM AND THE SENATE AS AN ELEMENT OF ELECTORAL PROGRAMS OF POLISH POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE LANCKORONA PACT AND THE MAY COUP (Polish title - below)
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(Title in Polish - 'Problematyka systemu wyborczego do Sejmu i Senatu w programach polskich partii politycznych od Paktu lanckoronskiego do przewrotu majowego'). The electoral system and its impact on political life have taken significant place in public discussion in Poland under the Second Republic. However, there is nothing curious in this, if we take into consideration the fact that its roots go back to the period directly preceding the restitution of the Polish state in November 1918. This practice has been continued in the subsequent years and, in the face of constant cabinet crises, resulted in further debates on this issue. It is evident especially in the years 1923-1926 when the idea of improvement of electoral system was used as a magic charm to institutionally overcome all the troubles faced by Poland. The aim of the article is to present the system of election of the representative bodies contained in the programmes of the most relevant Polish political parties existing in the period between the Lankorona Pact and the May (1926) Coup, including a critical analysis of the proposals of amendment of electoral law formally submitted to the Sejm and Senate of the first term of office. It should be stressed that those proposals, drafted by the Christian-National, Christian-Democratic and Popular-National Union parliamentary groups, irrespective of their rational motivation aimed at strengthening of mechanisms enabling formation of permanent government majority on the basis of programme union, violated basic principles of electoral law enshrined in the March Constitution (1921). A four-year discussion about electoral law has not been translated into a comprehensive, well-thought-out and flawless programme for the improvement of the system of government. It turned out that it is much more easy to make declarations than to implement them. After a military coup carried out by Józef Pilsudski, all of them have lost their importance, as it started a new period in the history of the Second Republic, leading to permanent changes not only in the way of thinking by the Polish people, but also in the field of political rules determining the limits of political life.
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