PHARMACOGENETICS IN RESEARCH ON RISK OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION DEVELOPMENT (Farmakogenetyka w badaniach nad ryzykiem rozwoju uzaleznienia od alkoholu)
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Pharmacogenetic analysis is performed in order to find genetic factors in individually diversified responses of an organism to a biologically active substance, including drugs and stimulants. Pharmacogenetics helps in identification of genes associated with increased development risk of some diseases what may result in more effective prevention and reduction of incidence rate. Both fundamental and clinical research proved that alcohol drinking related behaviour is influenced by feature complex determined by biological and environmental factors. Animal model research indicate presence genetic determinants responsible for development of addiction and alcohol abuse. Genetic analysis in alcoholism research is related to functional gene polymorphisms of genes of alcohol metabolic pathway which influence alcoholic inclinations through pharmacokinetic mechanisms. Another area of research is related to genetic variants of proteins engaged in neuronal response on alcohol including individual sensitivity, reward system excitability, and tolerance development. Genome analysis (including COGA group research) adduced convincing data concerning existence of gene complexes located in chromosome regions 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 which may be connected with alcohol addiction development. Identification of genes involved in the development of alcoholism is important not only for effective prevention but also for development of molecular diagnostics and individualization of therapy.
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