A Critique of the Institution of Financial Penalties in Maritime Legislation
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Under former maritime legislation, breaching the regulations established by this legislation was considered a crime or a misdemeanor. The punishment for the latter was usually a money fine. From 1991, this kind of action was punishable by so-called financial penalties, imposed by administrative decision (in administrative procedure) by the local organs of the maritime administration. The present normalization of this material raises a host of objections. This article discusses this process of normalization, and casts doubt upon its legality and constitutionality.
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