Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl



2005 | 21 | 89-113

Article title

Protected marine areas on the high seas


Title variants

Languages of publication



Threats stemming from global problems and their solutions are at the center of attention in the international community. Their complex character induces the necessity of co-operation at all levels from countries to international organizations as well as non-governmental organizations. Co-operation involves all levels - regional, sub-regional, and international. One recent form of this type of international co-operation regards the network of protected marine areas on the high seas. The protection of seas and oceans and the bottom and underground of the high seas as well as in situ resources requires solutions based on two fundamental concepts: the common heritage of humanity and the doctrine of the freedom of the seas. International public law, which is the basis for the creation of protected marine areas, is a mosaic of different instruments, such as agreements, action programs, strategies, and memorandums, which are both global and regional in character. The use of the high seas is regulated in international law based on the principle of co-operation among countries and no regulations ban the creation of protected marine areas. The concept of protected marine areas has been successful due to flexible, integrated management with appropriate tools and the simultaneous protection and exploitation of resources. International legal protection of high sea areas is confirmed by the appropriate resolutions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982, the convention on biodiversity - chapter 17 of Agenda 21, the principle of protection of marine areas of the World Conservation Union, and many international agreements of regional character. The concept of the protection of high sea areas is based on a set of instruments that facilitate equilibrium between the maintenance and protection and the exploitation of these areas. It is a form of protection for especially endangered ecosystems and species. It focuses on threats, which in the case of the high seas and ocean depths, include illegal catches, the destruction of habitats by trawlers, mineral excavation, shipping, marine pollution, and the exploitation and exploration of the 'area'.








Physical description

Document type



  • D. Pyc, Uniwersytet Gdanski, ul. Bazynskiego 1a, 80-952 Gdamsk, Poland


Document Type

Publication order reference


CEJSH db identifier

YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.