This paper is devoted to the fate of poet and member of the Slovak Communist Party, Ladislav Novomeský, in the middle of the nineteen fifties, while he was serving ten years in prison, to which he had been sentenced during a fabricated process with so-called Slovak bourgeoisie nationalists in April 1954. It describes the conditions under which the poet served his sentence and the circumstances of his conditional release in December 1955. In relation to the first wave of so-called de-Stalinisation in 1956 it describes the unsuccessful efforts of Slovak and Czech Communist intellectuals to rehabilitate Novomeský from the political, civil and literary aspect. It focuses on the impact of imprisonment on the poet’s mental state, his worldview orientation and self-reflexion in life. From various viewpoints it endeavours to describe Novomeský’s ideological profile and its development from the nineteen twenties. and in relation to this it chiefly concentrates on answering the question of why Novomeský, after his personal tragic experience and acquiring further knowledge about the broader context of the political processes in the nineteen fifties, did not deny the Marxist-Lenin ideology and retained his conviction of the developmental potential of the socialist project.