The article contains an analysis of the preserved fragments of Hecataeus of Abdera's work 'On the Hyperboreans' and a Polish translation of the most important ones. It seems that Hecataeus did not intend to depict an ideal of the pious and virtuous life in order to edify the reader. 'On the Hyperboreans' was not a utopia in the strict sense of the term. It was meant to be an entertaining novel describing a journey to a miraculous country. The writer probably did not imitate Pytheas of Massilia's work 'On the Ocean'. One should reject the hypothesis that Hecataeus' Hyperboreans were modeled on the Egyptians.