Kant's essay: 'A Project of Eternal Peace' contains a critical review of conditions that must be met in order to establish peaceful relations between nations. The project was inspired by political events of the time. In the Polish philosophical tradition it is often claimed that the essay contains Kant's comments on the legality of the partition of Poland. The author attempts to verify this claim. Using extant documents he describes Kant's attitude to Poland and Poles. He also presents various arguments that were used by students of Kant in Poland who sought to show that Kant's position was based on principles that make partition of any autonomous state incompatible with a project of permanent peace.