Zanikání sídel v pohraničí Čech po roce 1945 - základní analýza
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SETTLEMENT DESERTION IN BOHEMIAN BORDERLAND AFTER 1945 - A PRIMARY ANALYSIS
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We focused on the basic aspects of settlement desertion in Bohemian borderland after 1945 in our study. With regard to the absence of sufficiently detailed sources, we focused only on some settlements existing as of 01/12/1930. We defined two basic periods of settlement desertion. Settlements were deserted in various places and for various reasons during these periods. Approximately by the mid-1960s mostly small and insignificant settlements were deserted. These were either located at higher and inaccessible places close to the border or in newly established military districts. Towards the end of the 1960s the number of deserted settlements was reduced significantly and never was so large again. During these later periods deserted settlements were mostly located in lowlands and river basins which resulted from coal mining development and industrial activities. This tendency peaked in the 1970s and 1980s when also large and more significant settlements were deserted in the above specified areas. Changes in the settlement structure resulted neither from the border distance nor from preferences of inhabitants, but from the distribution of certain natural resources. Desertion of settlement does not only change physical structures in the given location, but it completely and extremely changes its features and its relations with other landscape components. We cannot support the statement that in future no settlements will be deserted, even though as far as some significant settlements are concerned we can nearly rule this possibility out. With regard to the current intensity of Czech settlement area utilisation, we cannot expect significant settlements to be deserted for any other reason than short-time - as far as the settlement development is concerned - power decisions. We can assume that less significant settlements are deserted in consequence of settlement development and its permanent restructuring. These settlements are located either in less exposed areas where changes are slow, or on the other hand, in exposed areas with high intensity of changes. In the first case the changes connected with desertion of a settlement are very slow and usually not perceived by people and in the second case intense changes are considered a part of the natural development in the area.
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