2009 | 33 | 53-65
Article title

CHANGES IN WORD RANGES IN EASTERN-SLAVONIC DIALECTS (Zmiany zasiegów wyrazowych w dialektach wschodnioslowianskich)

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The article discusses historical and dialectal changes of names of chosen body parts in Eastern-Slavonic languages. Two names formerly occurred in the meaning of 'forehead': more frequently 'chelo', rarely 'lob', which also has other meanings. The first one must have belonged to the higher (book) stratum, the other one - to the lower (folk) stratum. Today 'chelo' remained vestigially, in literary languages and in dialects 'lob' stayed common. In all Eastern Slavonic area the name 'ochi' occurred formerly in the meaning of 'eyes'. The name 'gl'az' is a Russian innovation. It sporadically appears as early as in the 15th century but it was popularised on the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. It must have been known earlier in Russian dialects but it was probably understood as vulgar. The name of 'human skin' occurs mainly in Russian dialects but as a variant it reaches Belarus and Ukraine quite deeply. Today as a literary word it is fixed in Belorussian 'skura', Ukrainian 'shkira' and Russian 'kozha'. Their fixing in literary languages was a very complex process. In the past the form 'skora' was also quite popular in Russian, however, partly in the meaning of 'animal skin', 'leather', 'fur'. Undoubtedly the form 'shkura' appears in the 18th century as well. In the light of dialectal and historical materials it is rather unlikely that this word is a possible borrowing from Polish. The words 'lob' (forehead), 'visk' (temple) and 'kosa' (a plait) also appeared on the Eastern borderland of Poland, besides 'kosa' historically much wider. After World War II 'leb' (forehead) and 'kosa' (a plait) were introduced in Western and Northern Poland as well. They started to disappear over time so that ranges of names typical for Eastern-Slavonic languages were fixed on the Eastern border of Poland.
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  • Janusz Siatkowski, Instytut Slawistyki PAN, ul. Bartoszewicza 1B, 00-337 Warszawa, Poland
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