THE HUMAN BEING IN RIDDLES: THE ARCHETYPE AND ITS STRUCTURE
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The authoress starts with an assumption that on the basis of linguistic nomination it is possible to reconstruct cultural stereotypes as well as the system of beliefs and mythological images. With this assumption, she analyzes Byelorussian riddles relating to people, with Russian and Polish ones as the background for comparison. Three groups of riddles are identified: 1. the ones describing people and the stages in their lives (the riddles contain situational metaphors: 'In the morning on all fours, in midday on two legs, in the evening on three horses'); 2. describing the appearance and body structure of a human being (the coding is performed through elements of neologisms (patray 'eyes' (the name is related to looking), sapay 'nose' (related to heavy breathing), petsay 'belly' (related to bursting)) and metaphorically (the head: Pol. 'palka' (club; cudgel), the torso: Pol. 'beczka' (barrel), etc.); 3. describing a body part, with preference given to the tongue and the teeth. In the last group the name is usually formed on the basis of the function performed by a given referent. Some cryptonyms are used when the tongue and teeth are treated as elements of the digestive system, others when they refer to speech organs.
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