THREE DIMENSIONS OF SUFFERING. THE SUFFERING IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE
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The authoress shows the analysis of three aspects of suffering: mental, physical and spiritual. This kind of differentiation is taken from the works of John Paul II, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, and other philosophers and thinkers. First, she refers to the problems of the sense of suffering in selected religious doctrines. Much attention is dedicated to the suffering in Christian aspect, based mainly on the Bible. The authoress also presents the sense of suffering in Buddhism. Later, the reflection on mental suffering and methods of treatment is raised (Konrad Stettbacher's concept). Next, based on the works of Cornelius van der Poel, the connection between the physical and mental suffering is stressed. She presents scholarly opinion suggesting that the psychical state of mind influences the ability to cope with physical suffering. The authoress choses works of Russian literature whose main subject is suffering to be presented as a very important element of her consideration. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's 'Brothers Karamazov' and 'The Idiot' are presented. Using the artistic works of Vladimir Maximov and Lev Tolstoi she shows the so-called extreme situations. Methods of depression treatment are showed with an example of Mikhail Zoshchenko's 'Before sunrise'. Closing, the author focuses on Alexander Solzhenitsyn's novel 'The Cancer Ward' which presents the problem of suffering in the age of communism.
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