Legal Aspects of Contemporary Marine Aquaculture (Selected Issues)
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The author discusses legal aspects of contemporary aquaculture in a broad sense, and as a type of farming marine organisms, especially fish, in a situation of significant overfishing of many basins. Marine aquaculture is, among other things, connected with biotechnology and genetic engineering, and also with the protection of the marine environment against pollution coming from marine aquaculture farms along the shore. In connection with this, various technical solutions are adopted, for example, in the form of protective artificial reefs that surround farms and modern electronic monitoring. The European Union has introduced appropriate legal regulations with regard to aquaculture, and special, interdisciplinary research programmer with the aim of producing a comprehensive report that considers, for example, legal aspects and economic issues of environmental protection in the neighborhood of fish farms. The EU deals with the issue of aquaculture in the context of the shore line economy and also on a nearly global scale - within the framework of aid programmers for developing countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The author points out the legal aspects of aquaculture, analyzing specific regulations of the UN convention on the law of the sea (1982), and the regulations of the Gdansk Convention (1973) and the Helsinki Convention (1992). He also considers FAO and EU regulations in which one may find direct and indirect references to aquaculture, also in the matter of environmental protection. Experience from European, Middle Eastern and Asian basins, relating to the legal aspects of marine aquaculture, needs to be generalized and ultimately transformed into appropriate legislative solutions.
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