Philip the Chancellor authored the first scholastic treatise on 'synderesis' (pre-conscience). He understands it as a rational power that has a natural and inalienable ability to distinguish between good and evil. Philip holds that 'synderesis' is the foundation of morality: it is the spring and principle of free choice, conscience and righteousness (rectitudo) or the ability to decipher the rules of the natural law. As a rational power 'synderesis' also influences significantly the intellectual activities of the human being thereby unifying the appetitive sphere with the cognitive one. Philip also emphasizes that 'synderesis' is a trace of the original perfection of nature and an expression of human dignity.