VALUE ORIENTATIONS, COLLECTIVE IDENTITIES AND VALUE CLEAVAGES IN SLOVAK SOCIETY
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The paper analyzes a few representative surveys of Slovak population. In process of value orientations scrutinizing, broadly shared values and value cleavages are in the focus. A concept of latent ideological types is an attempt to unveil hidden patterns of value orientations. We have described a relevant cultural pattern of historical continuity in political behaviour. A role of political conflict in a process of increasing value differences is documented. A focus shifts from particular group identities to general ones. At the end, three main dividing lines are identified. Etatist expectations, egalitarism, expectations of massive social redistribution and aversion against rich men are strongly spread in Slovak population. Possible direct interventions of the state into economics are perceived mostly with hope. After 1989 the threat of increasing social differences is powerfully perceived. Besides the 'social pillar', other value dominants come from the area of identities. A concept of latent ideological types is an attempt to unveil hidden patterns of value orientations. Towards to elder groups and to lower social class, anticommunist attitudes and a share of latent liberals are reduced. On the contrary, anti-liberal attitudes and shares of latent nationalists and communists are more frequent. Interweaving of regional support profile of former and popular Hlinka's Slovak People's Party (in the 20's and 30's) and of some current political parties reveals a continuity of cultural pattern behind a discontinuity of political scene. An ethnic criterion is the second frequent among general group identities. Criteria of social position dominate in case of negatively perceived groups. Slovaks with strong explicit ethnic identity represent one fifth among all Slovaks. The former have more negative attitudes against both ethnic non-Slovak personalities of Slovak history and Hungarian minority than the rest. Three main dividing lines were identified: conservative-liberal one, controversy on communism and controversy between ethnic intolerance against Hungarian minority and civic tolerance against them.
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