Pojetí svobody v Ambrosiastrových komentářích k pavlovským epištolám
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CONCEPT OF FREEDOM IN THE PAULINE COMMENTARIES OF AMBROSIASTER
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In the Pauline commentaries of Ambrosiaster (for centuries ascribed to Ambrose of Milan), a double interest may be observed: to defend God's justice and the responsibility of every human being for his/her deeds. According to the author, the consequences of Adam's fall affect the whole human race but he cannot admit that someone could be condemned for a sin he did not commit. This is why he draws a distinction between a physical death which affects everyone, and a spiritual or 'second' death reserved only for those who sinned in the similar way as Adam. Even though Satan can lure a soul away from good by means of a body, the ability (and responsibility) of soul to resist is preserved. After man agrees to the temptation, the bad habit makes future decisions more difficult. Predestination is explained as God's foreknowledge with the accent on perseverance. God foreknows who will obey his vocation and persevere until the end; he who obeys but does not persevere has never been called. God's foreknowledge and vocation impose no pressure on human will; people are invited and encouraged to believe but the decision seems to be entirely on them.
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