THE ROLE OF CLUSTERS IN NEW FORMS OF INNOVATION (Znaczenie klastrów w tworzeniu nowych form innowacji)
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The article focuses on the concept of clusters and its importance in creating new forms of innovation. By new forms of innovation we mean new methods of creating innovation and enhancing innovation processes, for example through engaging final users from the early stages of research and development (R&D) according to the user driven innovation (UDI) approach, as well as new types of created innovations, especially non-technological ones. Cluster structures which are one of the best diagnosed methods to stimulate horizontal cooperation in the economy, may be an effective mechanism for creating new forms of innovation. It is supported by the fact that both the concept of clusters and new forms of innovation are connected to the strategy of open innovation, derived from the modern model of innovation processes, based primarily on interactions and cooperation between different types of actors of national innovation systems. Case studies of clusters from Austria, France and Sweden confirm that cluster structures create favourable conditions for new forms of innovation, which require that companies acquire new skills and also enter into interactions with external actors, customers and other enterprises.
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