TRANSNATIONALISM - IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH ON RECENT MIGRATIONS FROM POLAND
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This article is composed of two parts. First one reviews major attempts to define the concept of transnationalism or rather notions used in current analysis of processes linked with transnational migrations. The author does not review them all, but rather argues against translating transnationalism into Polish as synonymous with transborder movements. It does happen in Anglo-Saxon literature but in Polish would create confusion since it refers to different set of activity. Transnationalism is a cultural phenomena related to changes in modern national and ethnic identities. It does not result in disappearance of these identities, in fact quite the opposite is true - the persistence of these identities, despite migrations. Transnationalism is a consequence of globalization, which also includes globalizations of cultures and national identities. Sometimes it is seen in opposition to processes of assimilation, sometimes as an integral phase of these processes. Second part presents conditions and characteristics of contemporary migrations from Poland, especially to the EU. The disappearance of borders, shrinking distances, and ease of travel produces new types of outcomes and social agency. Even permanent emigration does not impede migrants from maintaining dense and close links with their home countries, their culture and identity. An increase in circular patterns of mobility means that an emigrant 'isn't at home anywhere' nowadays and that it is clearly possible to maintain an unchanged, home-country identity within the Diaspora.
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