ODKRYCIE GOTYCKIEGO KOŚCIOŁA O UNIKATOWEJ, MUROWANO-SZKIELETOWEJ KONSTRUKCJI W KANIGOWIE
THE DISCOVERY OF A GOTHIC CHURCH WITH A UNIQUE BRICK-SKELETON CONSTRUCTION IN KANIGOWO
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The article is an attempt at recreating the original appearance of a Gothic brick-skeleton church in Kanigowo near Nidzica upon the basis of architectural research. The preserved parts of the skeleton walls made it possible to recreate the original composition of the northern and southern elevation, and the retention of the mediaeval roof truss permitted the establishment of the shape of the roof. Upon the basis of these elements it became feasible to define the architectural form of a church with a unique wall construction. Up to now the church has not been the topic of a separate monograph.Upon the basis of conducted architectural studies it has been ascertained that the basic outline of the present-day solid of the church originates from the 15th century. Apparently, the preserved fragments of the skeleton church walls comprise an integral element of its Gothic construction unambiguously confirmed by the dendrochronological research performed by Prof. Marek Krapiec, and made it possible to establish the date of the erection of the brick-skeleton church as 1386. The titular church was built from the onset with the application of two types of construction. Three-fifths of the walls were made of stones and ceramic brick, plastered on both sides. The upper part of the church walls was made out of parallel wooden constructions - from the outside with brick filling, and from the inside with timber framing. The skeleton parts of the wall comprise a uniform construction with the king-post roof truss and possess a single system of joiners' assembly signs. The 14th century construction was covered with a high gable roof with monk-nun tiles and probably had skeleton gables, which constituted a uniform construction with the roof truss. The brick ground floor of the nave featured two entrance portals - western and southern. The nave was additionally lit with three windows arranged in the southern elevation wall while the northern elevation was devoid of all windows. The outer construction with the brick, nonplastered filling contrasted with the whitened walls of the ground floor, comprising the prime visual accent of the Gothic church elevations. The monument possesses exceptional values on a regional and national scale. Quite probably, it is the only preserved example of a mediaeval brick-skeleton sacral building in former eastern Prussia. Presumably, there is no analogous edifice in the whole of Poland and possibly in Europe. Its other distinguishable features include artistic assets, which at present are not totally discernible. The form of the Gothic outer construction of the walls - despite the fact that a major part was concealed beneath plaster - is particularly noteworthy. Thanks to the application in each repeated span of cross-crossing elements it was possible to attain a decorative, almost 'ornamental' design of the wooden skeleton, contrasted with the brick filling. The configuration of the outer skeleton construction does not limit itself to a mere technical role, but comprises a sui generis decorative frieze crowning the brick church walls. For those reasons, suitable emphasis on this extremely valuable original construction of the church wall in the course of future conservation is to be regarded as a priority task during the revalorisation of the monument in question.
- mgr, jest absolwentem Instytutu Zabytkoznawstwa i Konserwatorstwa na Wydziale Sztuk Pięknych UMK w Toruniu. W 2004 r. uzyskał wyróżnienie Dziekana Wydziału i Dyrektora Instytutu Zabytkoznawstwa i Konserwatorstwa za pracę magisterską nt. Problematyka historyczno-architektoniczna i konserwatorska klasycystycznego drewnianego kościoła p.w. św. Michała Archanioła w Czarnem, której promotorem był prof. dr hab. inż. arch. Jan Tajchman. Autor i współautor opracowań oraz dokumentacji konserwatorskich, jego zainteresowania badawcze skupiają się wokół historii technik budowlanych oraz architektury sakralnej, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem historycznych konstrukcji dachowych z terenu dawnych Prus Wschodnich.
- Leszek Wawrykiewicz, Biuro Miejskiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Olsztynie, Olsztyn, Poland
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